Principles of Effective Communication and Constraints in Communication

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In general, effective communication should meet the following principles:

1. Qualify 5 C: Complete, Clear, Concise, Correct, and Courteous
2. The communicator and the communicant should have good relationship, reasonable and mutual trust.
3. Reciprocal
4. Open and unaffected
Constraints in Communication according to J. William Pfreffer:
1. Self-interest
Self-interest that fulfills the thoughts and feelings of a communicator will be less understanding of communication by the communicant. 
2. Emotional
A communicator who is being angry will make communication difficult because the communicator will choose sharp words, while the communicant interprets the message as an attack.
3. Charisma
Communicator who has charisma can deliver communication in very interesting way, so it makes the communicant amazed, consequently the communicant does not understand what he is listening.
4. Past experience
Negative past experience may hinder communication, because there is prejudice.
5. Clarity of Speech
Speech that is not clear will hinder communication because communicants do not understand the contents of the messages conveyed by the communicator.
6. Stereotype
Stereotype is a certain image of one person which is negative.
7. Physical Environment
For example, a noisy environment can hinder communication.
8. Drifting Mind 
Drifting mind makes no concentration that hinders communication.
9. The relationship between the communicator and the communicant
This relationship will affect communication if the attention is more focused on the nature of the relationship instead of the communication content.
10. Status
An official will usually be difficult to communicate with the subordinates.
11. Technical Disorder
For example, disturbed phone will hinder communication.

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