Caste Groups of Black Ants

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Caste Groups of Black Ants
Dolichoderus thoracic black ants live in social organization that consists of a number of individuals forming a society called colony. Ant colony consists of groups called caste. Black ants consist of several castes: queen, males, and workers. Worker ants are divided into two; workers and soldiers. Castes of ants have different tasks, but still interact and work together for survival (Son, 1994).
a. Queen ant
queen ant has a larger body than other members of the colony, about 4.9 millimeters in length, the eye components are perfectly developed, and has flight mechanism in the form of wings that have been developing well since entering imago phase. In one colony, there is usually more than a queen. At every 100-200 worker ants, there is always a queen (Kalshoven, 1981). Ant queens are more common found in the rainy season than when dry. This is because in the rainy season there are many sources of food and plants to make nests so that it supports for the growth of the colony (Mele and Cuc, 2004).
black ant
b. Male Ant
The size of male ant is smaller than the queen, blackish in color, has antennae and wings like the queen, and the eye components has been developed perfectly. Male ants are more numerous than the queen, but have shorter life. Male ants are produced only at certain times of the year, which is in mating season and after mating with the queen, male ants will normally die. (Anonim, 1988)
c. Worker ant
Worker ants have characteristics easily recognized, 3.6 to 4.1 millimeters in length, brown legs, reducing thorax, and the flight mechanism never develops (no wings), the front abdomen shrinks with one or two bulges towards the dorsal, brown and geniculate antenna; the first segment lengthens and the next segments are short forming angle with the first segment (Samiyanto, 1990).
d. Soldier Ant
Worker ants have various sizes. The worker generation of queen egg who first build a nest is smaller than the workers born after that. In this case, it appears two different castes of workers, the large size called soldiers and the small size become workers. All soldier ants have large heads, consisting of sturdy chitin material and strong mandible upper jaw. The jobs of soldier ants are fighting and protecting the nest. In addition, all soldier ants also help small workers to carry the food into the nest. (Anonim, 1988).

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