Humanistic Learning Theory

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Humanistic Learning Theory that I will write continues the previous Learning Theories such as Behaviorism and Cognitivism Learning Theories. According to Humanistic theory, the goal of learning is to humanize humans. Learning process is considered successful if the students have understood the environment and themselves. In other words, students in the learning process should gradually try to be able to achieve self-actualization as good as possible.
Humanistic learning theory
In general, this theory tends to be eclectic, meaning taking advantage of any learning technique as long as the student's learning objectives can be achieved. For example, the theory is realized in the work of Ausubel with her ‘Meaningful Learnin’, David Krathwohl and Benjamin Bloom (with the Bloom Taxonomy that is well-known), Koib with "Learning Four stages", Honey and Mumford with the division about the kinds of students, and Habermas with "Three Kinds or Learning Types".
According to Krathwohl and Bloom, there are three areas of learning objectives that can be achieved by students; Cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (motion), affective (attitude).

According to Kolb, there are four steps in the learning process:
1. Concrete Experience. Students have an experience but they have not been able to understand the meaning of that experience.
2. Active and Reflective Experience. Students begin to observe actively their experience, and reflectively start trying to understand the meaning of that experience.
3. Conceptualization. Students try to make abstractions or theorize about their experiences.
4. Active Experimentation. Students try to apply a general rule to the new situation.

Honey and Mumford based their theory on the theory of Kolb. Honey and Mumford divided students into four types:
1. Activists. They like to get involved in new experiences.
2. Reflector. They make a lot of careful consideration before acting.
3. Theorists. They like to analyze, theorize, and tend to always think rationally.
4. Pragmatic. They pay great attention to the practical aspects of everything.

According to Habermas, there are three types of learning:
1. Technical Learning. It emphasizes the human interaction with the environment.
2. Practical Learning emphasizes not only in the human interaction with the environment, but also between a person and another.
3. Emancipatory Learning emphasizes on students' understanding of transformation or cultural change in the environment.

Critics of Humanistic Learning Theory:
Humanistic theory is criticized because it is difficult to be used in a practical context; this theory is considered closer to the world of philosophy than the world of education.

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