Operational Definiton of Variable in Research

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An operational definition of variable is definition about established variable, in terms of the nature of observed variable.
operational definition variable
How to construct operational variable in a research according to Tuckman 1978 is as follows:
1. Operational definition is constructed based on how the process is done to make the define variable happens.
Example :
Variable of "Anxiety" can be operationalized as a result of subject towards safety thread.
Variable of "Hunger" can be operationalized as a result in which subject is not allowed to eat anything for more than 10 hours.
Variable of "Long exposion towards violence movies" can be operationalized as a phenomenon where subject watches only violence movies everyday for more than 6 months.
Due to the operational definition is constructed depends on the manipulation or process causing concerned variable, such definition is highly suitable for operationalizing independent variable.
2. Operational definition is made in terms of how the concerned variable works, that is what becomes the dynamic nature.
Behavior reflects dynamic nature of human. Hence, such operationalization describes human types based on the real and observable behavior which is related to the types or situation of the related person.
Example :
Concept of "Smart" people is operationalized as people who successfully answers more than 75% of a general ability test.
Smart people is also operationalized as those who skips the college classes no more than 3 times in a semester.
For defining way of the variable is based on dynamic nature of the subject, such operationalized is highly recommended for defining dependent variable.
3. Operational definition is designed based on measure criteria, applied on the defined variable.
In this case, number or score on the measure tools is considered as the representation of measured variable concept.
Example :
Variable of "Smart" which is conceptually has many definition, can be operationalized as IQ on the WAIS scale, or operationalized as numbers obtained from SPM test.

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