Definition of Hypothesis
- Hypothesis is a tentative conclusion to the formulation of research problems which will be tested by the data.
- Hypothesis is formulated from the framework.
- Hypothesis is formulated in the form of general statements as theoretical statements that theoretically answer the research problem.
The hypothesis is formulated for quantitative research to build theories based on constellation study of variable relationships.
- Descriptive study of one variable or two variables that are unrelated does not require the formulation of hypothesis, because the formula will only be assumption description.
Working hypothesis, null hypothesis and Statistical hypothesis
In the formulation of hypothesis, researchers often make the formulation of hypothesis. There are working hypothesis, null hypothesis and statistical hypothesis.
Working hypothesis is a hypothesis to be tested by the data and constructed in accordance with the theory.
Null hypothesis is opposed to working hypothesis, and formulated if working hypothesis reliability is questionable.
Then if the research works with the sample, and tends to generalize, it should be followed by the formulation of statistical hypothesis.
Criteria of Good Hypothesis:
- Must be able to explain the expected relationship.
- The relationship between two or more variables.
- Expressed in clear sentences, so it does not cause a variety of interpretations.
- Must be expressed in a simple and short sentence.
- Can be tested with data collected by the scientific method.
Hypothesis formulation forms
There are three kinds of hypothesis formulation forms; descriptive hypothesis, comparative hypothesis and associative hypotheses.
Descriptive hypothesis, it is generally not built, because it will be an assumptive hypothesis.
Comparative hypothesis is built on the formulation of comparative problem (comparison).
Associative hypothesis is built on the formulation of associative problem (relationship).
The example of Comparative Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no difference in the real achievement of learning among students who use the methods of collaborative learning, and students who use transformative learning methods.
Ha: There is a difference in the real achievement of learning among students who use the methods of collaborative learning, and students who use transformative learning methods.
The example of Associative Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significant positive relationship between teacher’s performance and student’s achievement.
Ha: There is a real positive relationship between the performance of teachers and student’s achievement.